Changes in lifestyles and consumer need the manufacturing industry to offer new products to stay competitive. A new product could be developed by improving the current product design (redesign) and aiming at cost reduction, higher customer satisfaction, and product reliability. Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA) is a concurrent product and process development approach that focuses on cost reduction by considering ease to manufacture and assembly. Besides manufacturability, product reliability is also an essential factor in the early design phase. The consequences of unreliable products could be very costly and even lead to market share loss. The primary purpose of this study is to provide insight based on current literature and propose future research opportunities on product redesign based on the integration of DFMA and Design for Reliability (DFR). Scopus database is used to obtain relevant articles, and bibliometric analysis is applied to a literature review to gratify the objective. This paper results in a systematic review of the past five years by investigating and discussing past and current DFMA and DFR for product redesign. The further research direction of product redesign framework based on DFMA approach and reliability prediction in the early design phase of product development.
Keywords: Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA), Design for Reliability, product redesign, review
The manufacturing industry is faced with rapid technological changes, an increase in product complexity, and a relatively short time to market. Therefore, new product development is needed to stay in the competition. One way to introduce a new product is by redesigning the existing product when a product has been on the market for some time. (Smith, Smith and Shen, 2012). Changes in consumer needs or desires are also the main drivers for product redesign. Product redesign aims to answer any problems that occur in existing products capabilities and manufacturing processes and the development of elements of product redesign (Li, Zhou and Wu, 2020).
This literature review conducts an initial goal of exploring the body of literature and following the related articles in a combination of DFMA, product redesign, and DFR. It uses a systematic literature review (SLR) and bibliometric analysis (B.A.) to organize the data in a more reader-friendly form. SLR explicitly contains information needed to be tailored into some helpful information. This method has been widely used across multiple study fields and representing high volumes of bibliographic (Sulistio, 2015; Paganin and Borsato, 2017; Benabdellah et al., 2019). To achieve the goal of this research, the general data of the articles available in the databases Scopus was considered by using the keyword “design for manufacturing and assembly” and “design for reliability.” A method for selection and analysis of the articles is shown in Figure 1.
The DFMA model that considers manufacturing costs at the material planning stage is a significant decision in the Design to Cost framework (Favi, Germani and Mandolini, 2016). It is not up for debate to consider manufacturing costs in assembly design and ease of manufacture. Mandolini (2019) emphasizes that the combination should include a costing model, which is generally applied in the procurement phase, with a design-to-cost model usually implemented at the early design stage. Therefore, proposed research focusing on framework development of design for manufacturing, assembly, and reliability consideration needs to be realized by taking into account manufacturing costs. In improving product design, it is emphasized that it is carried out at the early stage because it significantly affects the product development stage and the production process. However, it is tough for larger and more complex product scales to predict product reliability at the initial design stage accurately. Various design methodologies have been proposed to solve this problem, but efforts to maintain reliability in exploring design alternatives have not been achieved (Goo et al., 2019). Therefore, this study proposes a DFMA development model for conceptual design considering the reliability problems and failure modes that may arise at the successive detailed design stages. This model intends to integrate axiomatic design independence and hierarchical structure from failure modes, effects, and criticality priorities, which are widely used techniques for analyzing product reliability.
Companies have been more focused with product redesign to stay competitive as their drive of attracting more consumers and increasing product complexity has grown. The initial conceptual design stage of product design is gradually improved since it has a substantial impact on the product’s development and manufacturing stages. DFMA detects ineffective designs with high production costs as soon as possible and reduces the total cost of improvement. DFR will assist in identifying prototype issues, lowering life cycle costs and failure rates in the field. From 2000 through 2021, this research provides a bibliometric summary of literature on DFMA and DFR. The study analyzes publications from the time period in question using the Scopus database. The findings indicate that distribution publications are still inadequate, indicating that more research in this field is needed. However, it is challenging to solve problems in accurately redesigning products at the initial conceptual design stage, especially in meeting customer requirements, reducing manufacturing time and costs, and increasing reliability in an integrated manner. In addition, to fit customer requirements, considerations that can be involved in determining critical components of product redesign are product obsolescence, warranty data analysis, user claims, online review, and consumer acceptance. Moreover, research development using the DFMA method is still quite extensive. A reverse engineering approach would strengthen DFMA and DFR integrated model as a consequence of product redesign. Further challenging considerations that can be used are the sustainability aspect, minimum investment, and risk. Future research should also establish a trade-off analysis among multiple product redesign objectives.